Preparation, characterization, and cytotoxicity of CPT/Fe2O3-embedded PLGA ultrafine composite fibers: a synergistic approach to develop promising anticancer material
Touseef Amna1, M Shamshi Hassan2, Ki-Taek Nam2, Yang You Bing3, Nasser AM Barakat2, Myung-Seob Khil2, Hak Yong Kim1,2
1Center for Healthcare Technology Development, 2Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea; 3Animal Science and Technology College, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China
Abstract: The aim of this study was to fabricate camptothecin/iron(III) oxide (CPT/Fe2O3)-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) composite mats to modulate the CPT release and to improve the structural integrity and antitumor activity of the released drug. The CPT/ Fe2O3-loaded PLGA ultrafine fibers were prepared for the first time by electrospinning a composite solution of CPT/Fe2O3 and neat PLGA (4 weight percent). The physicochemical characterization of the electrospun composite mat was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern. The medicated composite fibers were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on C2C12 cells using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, St Louis, MO). The in vitro studies indicated a slow and prolonged release over a period of 96 hours with mild initial burst. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the interaction of CPT/Fe2O3 with the PLGA matrix and showed that the crystallinity of CPT decreased after loading. Incorporation of CPT in the polymer media affected both the morphology and the size of the CPT/Fe2O3-loaded PLGA composite fibers. Electron probe microanalysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirmed well-oriented composite ultrafine fibers with good incorporation of CPT/Fe2O3. The cytotoxicity results illustrate that the pristine PLGA did not exhibit noteworthy cytotoxicity; conversely, the CPT/Fe2O3 composite fibers inhibited C2C12 cells significantly. Thus, the current work demonstrates that the CPT/Fe2O3-loaded PLGA composite fibers represent a promising chemotherapeutic system for enhancing anticancer drug efficacy and selectively targeting cancer cells in order to treat diverse cancers.
Keywords: camptothecin, C2C12 cells, Fe2O3 nanoparticles, electrospinning, cytotoxicity
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