Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles containing cyclosporine by the emulsification-diffusion method
Zaida Urbán-Morlán1, Adriana Ganem-Rondero1, Luz María Melgoza-Contreras2, José Juan Escobar-Chávez1,2, María Guadalupe Nava-Arzaluz1, David Quintanar-Guerrero1
1División de Estudios de Posgrado (Tecnología Farmacéutica), Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Estado de México, México; 2Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso, Colonia Villa Quietud, México
Abstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because they improve absorption and bioavailability. The aim of the study was to prepare lipidic nanoparticles containing cyclosporine (CyA) by the emulsification-diffusion method and to study their physicochemical stability. Glyceryl behenate (Compritol® ATO 888) and lauroyl macrogolglycerides (Gelucire® 44/14) were used as carrier materials. Nanoparticles with good stability were obtained with Gelucire®, while it was difficult to obtain stable systems with Compritol®. Systems with Gelucire® were characterized by particle size, Z-potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Particle size and Z-potential were evaluated for at least three months. With a high CyA content (≥60 mg) in Gelucire® SLNs, variations in size were greater and particle size also increased over time in all batches; this effect may have been caused by a probable expulsion of the drug due to the lipid’s partial rearrangement. While the Z-potential decreased 10 mV after three months, this effect may be explained by the superficial properties of the drug that make the molecules to be preferably oriented at the solid-liquid interface, causing a change in the net charge of the particle. SEM confirmed size and shape of the nanoparticles. DSC studies evidenced that CyA affects the lipid structure by a mechanism still unknown. The entrapment efficiency was higher than 92%, and CyA release from SLNs was relatively fast (99.60% in 45 min).
Keywords: emulsification-diffusion method, solid lipid nanoparticles, glyceryl behenate, lauroyl macrogolglycerides, dispersion stability, cyclosporine