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Preferences for the administration of testosterone gel: evidence from a discrete choice experiment

Authors Retzler J, Smith AB, Oliveira Gonçalves AS, Whitty JA

Received 7 December 2018

Accepted for publication 19 March 2019

Published 1 May 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 657—664

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S197469

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen


Jenny Retzler,1 Adam B Smith,1 Ana Sofia Oliveira Gonçalves,2 Jennifer A Whitty2

1York Health Economics Consortium, Enterprise House, York YO10 5NQ, UK; 2Norwich Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK

Objectives: Differences in testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) gel products may affect patient satisfaction, quality-of-life, and treatment response and adherence. This study investigated preferences for TRT gel in terms of formulation and administration.
Methods: 525 male adults aged 45 years and over completed a discrete choice experiment. Respondents made repeated choices between two hypothetical testosterone gel treatments described according to four attributes: form, ease of use, impact of use on showering/swimming, and location/dosage of the application. Choice data were analyzed using a latent class model.
Results: Three preference classes were identified. Respondents across all classes displayed a preference for the gel being dispensed in smaller units with accurate dosing, waiting shorter times after the gel application before swimming/showering, and using 2.5 gm of gel to be applied to the inner thigh/abdomen as opposed 5 gm to shoulder/abdomen. The importance of these characteristics differed across classes, with preference class membership predicted by age and education level. For instance, younger men (aged 45–64 years) were more likely to belong to a class that prioritized reduced waiting time before being able to undertake activities. Formulation was not an important driver of choice.
Conclusions: Preferences demonstrate a predilection for TRT gel dispensed in small units allowing precise dosing, shorter waiting time after application, and application to the inner thigh/abdomen. However, the strength of importance of these characteristics differs between men. This study highlights the attributes of TRT gel considered important to patient subgroups, and which may ultimately affect treatment response, medication adherence, and patient quality-of-life.

Keywords: testosterone replacement therapy, discrete choice experiment, patient preferences


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