Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 11

Preclinical systemic toxicity evaluation of chitosan-solid–lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated aspirin and curcumin in combination with free sulforaphane in BALB/c mice

Authors Thakkar A, Chenreddy S, Thio A, Khamas W, Wang J, Prabhu S

Received 19 February 2016

Accepted for publication 11 May 2016

Published 20 July 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 3265—3276


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Arvind Thakkar,1 Sushma Chenreddy,1 Astrid Thio,1 Wael Khamas,2 Jeffrey Wang,1 Sunil Prabhu1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA

Abstract: Our previous studies have established the efficacy of chemopreventive regimens of aspirin and curcumin (CUR) encapsulated within solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in combination with free sulforaphane (ACS combination) to prevent or delay the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, classified as one of the deadliest diseases with very low chances of survival upon diagnosis. Although toxicity of individual drugs and SLN has been studied previously, there are no studies in current literature that evaluate the potential toxicity of a combined regimen of ACS, especially when encapsulated within chitosan-SLNs (c-SLNs). Hence, objective of the current study was to investigate the potential toxic effects of ACS c-SLN combined chemopreventive regimens following acute (3 days), subacute (28 days), and subchronic (90 days) administrations by oral gavage in BALB/c mice. Mice were administered the following regimens: saline, blank c-SLN, low-dose ACS c-SLN (2+4.5+0.16 mg/kg), medium-dose ACS c-SLN (20+45+1.6 mg/kg), and high-dose ACS c-SLN (60+135+4.8 mg/kg). The potential toxicity was evaluated based on animal survival, body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and organ histopathology. During 3-day, 28-day, and 90-day study periods, no animal deaths were observed. Treatment with ACS c-SLNs did not cause alteration in complete blood counts and blood chemistry data. Histopathological examination of various organ sections (pancreas, heart, liver, kidney, and brain) appeared normal. Based on the results of this study, no signs of toxicity in acute, subacute, and subchronic studies following oral administration of ACS c-SLNs were found indicating that the oral dosing regimens were safe at the levels tested for long-term administration to prevent the onset of pancreatic cancer.

Keywords: pancreatic cancer, toxicity, chitosan-solid lipid nanoparticle, aspirin, curcumin, sulforaphane

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]