Potentials and limitations of microorganisms as renal failure biotherapeutics
Poonam Jain, Sapna Shah, Razek Coussa, Satya Prakash
Biomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physiology, Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
Abstract: Renal insufficiency leads to uremia, a complicated syndrome. It thus becomes vital to reduce waste metabolites and regulate water and electrolytes in kidney failure. The most common treatment of this disease is either dialysis or transplantation. Although these treatments are very effective, they are extremely costly. Recently artificial cells, microencapsulated live bacterial cells, and other cells have been studied to manage renal failure metabolic wastes. The procedure for microencapsulation of biologically active material is well documented and offers many biomedical applications. Microencapsulated bacteria have been documented to efficiently remove urea and several uremic markers such as ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride. These bacteria also have further potential as biotherapeutic agents because they can be engineered to remove selected unwanted waste. This application has enormous potential for removal of waste metabolites and electrolytes in renal failure as well as other diseases such as liver failure, phenylketonuria, and Crohn’s disease, to name a few. This paper discusses the various options available to date to manage renal failure metabolites and focuses on the potential of using encapsulated live cells as biotherapeutic agents to control renal failure waste metabolites and electrolytes.
Keywords: renal failure, microencapsulation, artificial cells, oral administration, bacterial cells, metabolites, electrolytes, polymeric membrane
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