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Potential drug–drug interactions in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors Oshikoya KA, Oreagba IA, Lawal S, Awodele O, Ogunleye OO, Senbanjo IO, Olufemi SO, Ezeaka VC, Temiye EO, Adeyemo TA, Opanuga O, Lesi OA, Akanmu S

Received 31 July 2013

Accepted for publication 9 September 2013

Published 5 April 2014 Volume 2014:6 Pages 49—59


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Kazeem A Oshikoya,1 Ibrahim A Oreagba,2 Saheed Lawal,2 Olufunsho Awodele,2 Olayinka O Ogunleye,1 Idowu O Senbanjo,3 Sunday O Olayemi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,4,5 Edamisan O Temiye,4,5 Titilope A Adeyemo,4,6 Oluranti Opanuga,4,7 Olufunmilayo A Lesi,4,8 Sulaimon A Akanmu4,6

1Department of Pharmacology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Paediatrics, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; 4APIN Clinic, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria; 5Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria; 6Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria; 7Department of Pharmacy, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba Lagos, Nigeria; 8Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria

Background: Multi-therapy is common in HIV-infected children, and the risk for clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs) is high. We investigated the prevalence of CSDIs between antiretroviral (ARV) and co-prescribed drugs for children attending a large HIV clinic in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods: The case files of pediatric patients receiving treatment at the HIV clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-Araba, between January 2005 and December 2010 were reviewed. The ARV and co-prescribed drug pairs were evaluated for potential interactions using the Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Group website. The potential interactions were rated as A (no known interaction), B (minor/no action needed), C (moderate/monitor therapy), D (major/therapy modification), and X (contraindicated/avoid combination).
Results: Of the 310 cases reviewed, 208 (67.1%) patients were at risk of CSDIs. Artemisinin-based combination therapy was prescribed for over one-half of the patients, accounting for 40% of the CSDIs. Excluding this drug class, the prevalence of CSDIs reduced from 67.1% to 18.7% in 58 patients. Most of the CSDIs (579; 97.2%) were moderately significant and frequently involved nevirapine and fluconazole (58; 9.7%), zidovudine and fluconazole (55; 9.2%), zidovudine and rifampicin (35; 5.9%), and nevirapine and prednisolone (31; 5.2%). Age (P=0.392), sex (P=0.783), and moderate (P=0.632) or severe (P=0.755) malnutrition were not associated with risk for CSDIs.
Conclusion: There is a tendency for CSDIs between ARV and co-prescribed drugs among the group of children evaluated in this study. Measures are necessary to prevent important drug interactions and to manage those that are unavoidable.

Keywords: infection, antiretroviral drug, co-prescribed drug, prevalence, therapy monitoring, therapy modification, contraindication

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