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Potential antitumor activity of novel DODAC/PHO-S liposomes

Authors Cássio de Lima Luna A, Kelle Viegas Saraiva G, Mendonça R. Filho O, CHIERICEE GO, Claro Neto S, CUCCOVIA IM, Maria D

Received 20 June 2015

Accepted for publication 19 September 2015

Published 18 April 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 1577—1591


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Arthur Cássio de Lima Luna,1,2 Greice Kelle Viegas Saraiva,3 Otaviano Mendonça Ribeiro Filho,4 Gilberto Orivaldo Chierice,5 Salvador Claro Neto,5 Iolanda Midea Cuccovia,3 Durvanei Augusto Maria1,2

1Biochemistry and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 2Department of Medical Sciences, Medical School, 3Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 4Environmental Health Surveillance, Municipality of Uberaba, Minas Gerais, 5Department of Chemistry and Molecular Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Brazil

Abstract: In recent studies, we showed that synthetic phosphoethanolamine (PHO-S) has a great potential for inducing cell death in several tumor cell lines without damage to normal cells. However, its cytotoxic effect and selectivity against tumor cells could increase with encapsulation in cationic liposomes, such as dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC), due to electrostatic interactions between these liposomes and tumor cell membranes. Our aim was to use cationic liposomes to deliver PHO-S and to furthermore maximize the therapeutic effect of this compound. DODAC liposomes containing PHO-S (DODAC/PHO-S), at concentrations of 0.3–2.0 mM, prepared by ultrasonication, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering. The cytotoxic effect of DODAC/PHO-S on B16F10 cells, Hepa1c1c7 cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle phases of B16F10 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and the morphological changes by SEM, after treatment. The liposomes were spherical and polydisperse in solution. The liposomes were stable, presenting an average of ~50% of PHO-S encapsulation, with a small reduction after 40 days. DODAC demonstrated efficient PHO-S delivery, with the lowest values of IC50% (concentration that inhibits 50% of the growth of cells) for tumor cells, compared with PHO-S alone, with an IC50% value of 0.8 mM for B16F10 cells and 0.2 mM for Hepa1c1c7 cells, and without significant effects on endothelial cells. The Hepa1c1c7 cells showed greater sensitivity to the DODAC/PHO-S formulation when compared to B16F10 cells and HUVECs. The use of DODAC/PHO-S on B16F10 cells induced G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, with the proportion significantly greater than that treated with PHO-S alone. The morphological analysis of B16F10 cells by SEM showed changes such as “bleb” formation, cell detachment, cytoplasmic retraction, and apoptotic bodies after DODAC/PHO-S treatment. Cationic liposomal formulation for PHO-S delivery promoted cytotoxicity more selectively and effectively against B16F10 and Hepa1c1c7 cells. Thus, the DODAC/PHO-S liposomal formulation presents great potential for preclinical studies.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, lipossomal formulation, synthetic phosphoethanolamine, nanocarriers 

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