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Phenotype Frequencies of Major Blood Group Systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran) Among Blood Donors in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia

Authors Owaidah AY, Naffaa NM, Alumran A, Alzahrani F

Received 1 November 2019

Accepted for publication 4 February 2020

Published 13 February 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 59—65

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S236834

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin H. Bluth


Amani Y Owaidah,1 Noor M Naffaa,1 Arwa Alumran,2 Faisal Alzahrani1

1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Health Information Management and Technology, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Amani Y Owaidah
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2435, Dammam 31441, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tel +966-13-3331347
Fax +966-13-3330225
Email ayowaidah@iau.edu.sa

Introduction: The understanding of blood group phenotypes in Saudi Arabia is limited to the ABO and Rh blood groups. Data for the other major blood group phenotypes in different populations have been widely studied and used as a reference for identifying antigen-negative blood in hospital blood banks. Such information is crucial for facilitating the challenging task of providing antigen-negative blood for patients with multiple antibodies.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the major blood group phenotypes in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia and compare them to phenotypes in other populations.
Methods: A total of 100 volunteer Saudi donors were included in this study. Red blood cells from the donors were subjected to antigen typing of the major blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, Lewis, Lutheran, and P) using the gel microtube technique.
Results: From the Rh blood group system, the e antigen was found in 97% of donors, followed by c at 86%. The Cellano (k) antigen of the Kell system was found in all donors, whereas the Kell (K) antigen was only found in 8 % of donors. The K+k- phenotype was not detected in our study. Unexpectedly, for the Duffy blood group system, the null phenotype Fy(a-b-) was found in 61% of donors. In the MNS blood group system, M+N-S+s+ was the most common phenotype at 24%.
Conclusion: The frequency of blood group phenotypes in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia differs from that in other populations because of the diverse ethnic backgrounds of those living in that region. The findings of this study can be used to establish a local donor registry to help provide antigen-negative blood for patients with unexpected antibodies or to create an in-house antibody identification panel to add to the commercial panel that would be useful for confirming antibody identification results.

Keywords: alloimmunization, blood groups, phenotype frequencies, Saudi Arabia

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