Penetration force and cannula sliding profiles of different pen needles: the PICASSO study
Received 10 June 2019
Accepted for publication 26 July 2019
Published 28 August 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 311—317
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Nicola Ludin
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Luca Leonardi,1 Mara Viganò,1 Antonio Nicolucci2
1Pikdare S.p.A., Casnate Con Bernate 22070, CO, Italy; 2CORESEARCH, Center for Outcomes Research and Clinical Epidemiology, Pescara 65124, Italy
Correspondence: Luca Leonardi
Pikdare Research & Development, Via F. Catelli, 10, Casnate Con Bernate 22070, CO, Italy
Tel +39 031 729 7111
Fax +39 031 729 7100
Purpose: Pen needles used for insulin injections can have different characteristics that affect a patient’s injection experience. The aim of the study was to investigate in a standardized laboratory setting the penetration force and sliding force of different 31/32/33/34 gauge pen needles available in 3.5/4/5/8 mm length and 3/5 bevel tips for subcutaneous injection through pen needles and injection pens.
Methods: Eight different commercially available pen needles were tested in this experimental study. The needle was inserted into a polyurethane substrate at a specific constant speed and the force for insertion was recorded as a function of penetration depth. A load cell was utilized to measure force during the different stages of insertion.
Results: Maximum load was lower with the PiC G32×4 when compared with the G32×4 5-bevel needle (p<0.0001), while it was not significantly lower with the PiC G32×4 when compared to the G32×4 3-bevel needle (p=0.064). The comparison of G33×4 PiC and G34×3.5 PiC needles with G32 needles demonstrated significantly lower maximum loads with G33 and G34 (p<0.0001). No difference between needles emerged for sliding results.
Conclusion: Newer pen needles represent a significant improvement in insulin delivery, reducing the amount of force required to penetrate tissues. Needle tip sharpness and other factors that can reduce the force of insertion such as lubrication are important parameters that can be optimized to increase patient acceptance.
Keywords: penetration force, maximum load, average sliding
Erratum for this paper has been published
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