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Parkinson’s disease-associated melanin steal

Authors Hinz M, Stein A, Cole T

Received 26 September 2014

Accepted for publication 17 October 2014

Published 10 December 2014 Volume 2014:10 Pages 2331—2337

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S74952

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder


Marty Hinz,1 Alvin Stein,2 Ted Cole3

1Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3Cole Center for Healing, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Abstract: Urinary dopamine fluctuations in the competitive inhibition state were first documented in 2009. At that time, it was noted that progressively higher daily dosing values of L-tyrosine decreased the magnitude of these fluctuations. While extensive statistical analysis has been performed by the authors since 2004, it was not until 2012 that a plausible explanation was formulated. In the process, correlations with L-tyrosine administration and the on/off effect of Parkinson’s disease were defined. This paper documents the current knowledge with regard to the management of retrograde phase 1 dopamine fluctuations and investigates the hypothesis that they are caused by a melanin steal phenomenon.

Keywords: fluctuations, L-dopa, dopamine, melanocyte

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