Paliperidone palmitate injection for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults
Shiyun Kim,1 Hugo Solari,2 Peter J Weiden,2 Jeffrey R Bishop1
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
Purpose: To review the use of paliperidone palmitate in treatment of patients with schizophrenia.
Methods: Published clinical trial data for the development and utilization of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia were assessed in this review. Four short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigated the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Paliperidone palmitate was also studied as a maintenance treatment to prevent or delay relapse in stable schizophrenia. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was compared to risperidone long-acting injection for noninferiority in three studies.
Results: Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in the four acute treatment studies. In the maintenance treatment studies, paliperidone palmitate was found to be more effective than placebo in preventing or delaying the time to first relapse in stable schizophrenia patients. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in two studies. It was shown to be reasonably well tolerated in all clinical trials. Acute treatment phase should be initiated with a dose of 234 mg on day one and 156 mg on day eight, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability results from the clinical studies.
Conclusion: Providing an optimal long-term treatment can be challenging. Paliperidone palmitate can be used as an acute treatment even in outpatient setting, and it has shown to be well tolerated by patients. Also, it does not require overlapping oral antipsychotic supplementation while being initiated, and is dosed once per month.
Keywords: schizophrenia, antipsychotic, long-acting injection, paliperidone