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Oxidative stress and antibacterial properties of a graphene oxide-cystamine nanohybrid

Authors Nanda SS, An SSA, Yi DK

Received 14 October 2014

Accepted for publication 26 November 2014

Published 12 January 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 549—556

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S75768

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J Webster

Sitansu Sekhar Nanda,1 Seong Soo A An,1 Dong Kee Yi2,3

1Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea; 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Environmental Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin, South Korea

Abstract: Oxidative stress can damage proteins, DNA, and lipids, and is involved in the progression of many diseases. Damage to infected cells caused by oxidative stress is related to increased levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide. During oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide levels are often increased and catalase level decreased inside cells. This can lead to the death of skin and other cells. Hydrophobic low molecular weight compounds are useful in treating hemorrhagic conditions of the skin. To this end, cystamine has been successfully conjugated with graphene oxide (GO) as a drug carrier. The current study used the microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cystamine-conjugated GO against four types of pathogenic bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentrations values were 1 µg/mL against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 6 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis, and 4 µg/mL against Bacillus subtilis. Toxicity of the conjugate against squamous cell carcinoma 7 cells was minimal at low concentrations, but increased in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated that our protocol produced a cystamine-conjugated GO with low cytotoxicity, but strong reactive oxygen species effects and high antibacterial activity. This nanohybrid may be useful in the treatment of dermatological disorders. Moreover, this class of nanohybrid may have other biomedical applications due to their low cytotoxicity and high antibacterial activity.

Keywords: graphene, oxide, cystamine conjugate, reactive oxygen species, antibacterial, oxidative stress

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