Osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus: what do we know, and what we can do?
Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer,1 Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman,1 Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali,1 Karuppiah Subramaniam,2 Mohanad Naji Sahib1
1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Diabetes Outpatient Clinic, Penang General Hospital, Penang, Malaysia
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic and chronic metabolic disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. In addition, osteoporosis (OP) is a silent disease with a harmful impact on morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the relationship between OP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Systematic reviews of full-length articles published in English from January 1950 to October 2010 were identified in PubMed and other available electronic databases on the Universiti Sains Malaysia Library Database. The following keywords were used for the search: T2DM, OP, bone mass, skeletal. Studies of more than 50 patients with T2DM were included. Forty-seven studies were identified. The majority of articles (26) showed increased bone mineral density (BMD), while 13 articles revealed decreased BMD; moreover, eight articles revealed normal or no difference in bone mass. There were conflicting results concerning the influence of T2DM on BMD in association with gender, glycemic control, and body mass index. However, patients with T2DM display an increased fracture risk despite a higher BMD, which is mainly attributable to the increased risk of falling. As a conclusion, screening, identification, and prevention of potential risk factors for OP in T2DM patients are crucial and important in terms of preserving a good quality of life in diabetic patients and decreasing the risk of fracture. Patients with T2DM may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls. Patient education about an adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and regular exercise is important for improving muscle strength and balance. Furthermore, adequate glycemic control and the prevention of diabetic complications are the starting point of therapy in diabetic patients.
Keywords: bone, diabetes, osteopenia, osteoporosis, skeletal
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