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Optimizing efficacy of amphotericin B through nanomodification

Authors Suresh P Vyas, Swati Gupta

Published 15 January 2007 Volume 2006:1(4) Pages 417—432

Suresh P Vyas, Swati Gupta

Drug Delivery Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar (M.P), india

Abstract: Fungal infections and leishmaniasis are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The macrolide polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) has long been recognized as a powerful fungicidal and leishmanicidal drug. A conventional intravenous dosage form of AmB, AmB- deoxycholate (Fungizone or D-AmB), is the most effective clinically available for treating fungal and parasitic (leishmaniasis) infections. However, the clinical efficacy of AmB is limited by its adverse effects mainly nephrotoxicity. Efforts to lower the toxicity are based on synthesis of AmB analogues such as AmB esters or preparation of AmB-lipid associations in the forms of liposomal AmB (L-AmB or AmBisome), AmB lipid complex (Abelcet or ABLC), AmB colloidal dispersion (Amphocil or ABCD), and intralipid AmB. These newer formulations are substantially more expensive, but allow patients to receive higher doses for longer periods of time with decreased renal toxicity than conventional AmB. Modifications of liposomal surface in order to avoid RES uptake, thus increased targetability has been attempted. Emulsomes and other nanoparticles are special carrier systems for intracellular localization in macrophage rich organs like liver and spleen. Injectable nano-carriers have important potential applications as in site-specific drug delivery.

Keywords: amphotericin B, fungal infections, leishmaniasis, nanocarriers