Ocular pharmacokinetics and tolerability of bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions administered once or twice daily in rabbits, and clinical dosing implications
Authors Shen J, Goodkin ML, Tong W, Attar M
Received 7 June 2017
Accepted for publication 18 July 2017
Published 28 September 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 1761—1767
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Jie Shen,1 Margot L Goodkin,2 Warren Tong,2 Mayssa Attar3
1Clinical Pharmacology, 2Clinical Development, 3Clinical Pharmacology, Metabolism and Immunology, Allergan plc, Irvine, CA, USA
Purpose: Fixed-combination medications can benefit patients requiring multiple agents to lower their intraocular pressure (IOP), but combining agents with complementary mechanisms of action is challenging if their dosing frequency differs. This study compares in vivo pharmacokinetic and ocular tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% ophthalmic solutions dosed once or twice daily. Reports of twice-daily dosing in glaucoma patients are also reviewed.
Methods: New Zealand White rabbits were administered bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy or fixed-combination bimatoprost 0.01%/brimonidine 0.1%, once or twice daily in both eyes for 4 days. Ocular tissues were harvested and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated included maximum observed concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area under the concentration-time curve.
Results: Due to extensive metabolism, bimatoprost concentration was below the quantitation limit by 1 hour post-dose in all samples. Bimatoprost acid exposure, however, could be measured up to 6–8 hours post-dose and was similar in the aqueous humor and iris-ciliary body (pharmacological site of action) of animals treated once or twice daily with either bimatoprost 0.01% or fixed-combination bimatoprost 0.01%/brimonidine 0.1%. Increasing dosage frequency in rabbits did not raise the incidence of drug-related conjunctival hyperemia (most common adverse event associated with bimatoprost use in humans), suggesting comparable ocular tolerability of the once- and twice-daily regimens for each formulation.
Conclusion: Bimatoprost 0.01% administered once or twice daily as monotherapy and in fixed-combination with brimonidine 0.1% in rabbits show similar pharmacokinetic profiles of bimatoprost acid, especially in the iris-ciliary body. Key findings from previous clinical studies suggest that by varying the concentration of benzalkonium chloride (a preservative with corneal penetration-enhancing properties), formulations of bimatoprost 0.01% can be administered once or twice daily. These findings support development of bimatoprost 0.01%-based fixed-dose combination therapies administered twice daily for patients who require multiple adjunctive medications to control their IOP.
Keywords: bimatoprost, pharmacokinetics, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, hyperemia
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