Novel Prognostic Nomograms for Predicting Early and Late Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Curative Hepatectomy
Authors Xu W, Li R, Liu F
Received 11 December 2019
Accepted for publication 25 February 2020
Published 9 March 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 1693—1712
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Yong Teng
Wei Xu, Ruineng Li, Fei Liu
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, The First Hospital Affiliated with Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410005, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Wei Xu
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, The First Hospital Affiliated with Hunan Normal University, No. 61 West Jiefang Road, Changsha 410005, People’s Republic of China
Aim: Hepatectomy is the main curative method for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. Unfortunately, high recurrence rate after hepatectomy poses negative impact on the prognosis of patients. This study aimed to develop prognostic nomograms to predict early recurrence (ER) and late recurrence (LR) of HCC after curative hepatectomy.
Patients and Methods: Total of 318 HCC patients undergoing curative hepatectomy from January 2012 to January 2018 were retrospectively recruited. Potential risk factors that were significant for predicting ER and LR in univariate analysis were selected for multivariate survival model analysis using the backward stepwise method. Risk factors identified in multivariate analysis were used to develop nomograms to predict ER and LR. The nomogram was internally validated using 2,000 bootstrap samples from 75% of the original data.
Results: Among 318 patients, 164 showed postoperative recurrence, of which 140 and 24 had ER (≤ 2 years) and LR (> 2 years), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age, Hong Kong Liver Cancer Stage, albumin-bilirubin, METAVIR fibrosis grade, and microvascular invasion were risk factors of ER for HCC after curative hepatectomy. The AUC of the ROC curve for ER in the development set (D-set) was 0.888 while that in the validation set (V-set) was 0.812. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and glypican-3 (+) were risk factors for LR in HCC patients after curative hepatectomy. The AUC of the ROC curve for LR predictive nomogram that integrated all independent predictors was 0.831. The AUC of the ROC curve for LR in the D-set was 0.833, while that for LR in the V-set was 0.733. The C-index and AUC of ROC for the proposed nomograms were more satisfactory than three conventional HCC staging systems used in this study.
Conclusion: We developed novel nomograms to predict ER and LR of HCC patients after curative hepatectomy for clinical use to individualize follow-up and therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatectomy, risk factor, prognosis, nomogram
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]