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Non-eosinophilic asthma: current perspectives

Authors Esteban-Gorgojo I, Antolín-Amérigo D, Domínguez-Ortega J, Quirce S

Received 8 June 2018

Accepted for publication 20 August 2018

Published 29 October 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 267—281


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Amrita Dosanjh

Video abstract presented by Ignacio Esteban-Gorgojo.

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Ignacio Esteban-Gorgojo,1 Darío Antolín-Amérigo,2 Javier Domínguez-Ortega,3,4 Santiago Quirce3,4

1Department of Allergy, Hospital General de Villalba, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Allergy, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain; 3Department of Allergy, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research (IdiPAZ), 4CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, CIBERES, Madrid, Spain

Abstract: Although non-eosinophilic asthma (NEA) is not the best known and most prevalent asthma phenotype, its importance cannot be underestimated. NEA is characterized by airway inflammation with the absence of eosinophils, subsequent to activation of non-predominant type 2 immunologic pathways. This phenotype, which possibly includes several not well-defined subphenotypes, is defined by an eosinophil count <2% in sputum. NEA has been associated with environmental and/or host factors, such as smoking cigarettes, pollution, work-related agents, infections, and obesity. These risk factors, alone or in conjunction, can activate specific cellular and molecular pathways leading to non-type 2 inflammation. The most relevant clinical trait of NEA is its poor response to standard asthma treatments, especially to inhaled corticosteroids, leading to a higher severity of disease and to difficult-to-control asthma. Indeed, NEA constitutes about 50% of severe asthma cases. Since most current and forthcoming biologic therapies specifically target type 2 asthma phenotypes, such as uncontrolled severe eosinophilic or allergic asthma, there is a dramatic lack of effective treatments for uncontrolled non-type 2 asthma. Research efforts are now focusing on elucidating the phenotypes underlying the non-type 2 asthma, and several studies are being conducted with new drugs and biologics aiming to develop effective strategies for this type of asthma, and various immunologic pathways are being scrutinized to optimize efficacy and to abolish possible adverse effects.

Keywords: asthma, non-eosinophilic asthma, asthma phenotype, asthma endotype, neutrophilic asthma

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