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New therapies for the treatment of heart failure: a summary of recent accomplishments

Authors Machaj F, Dembowska E, Rosik J, Szostak B, Mazurek-Mochol M, Pawlik A

Received 6 July 2018

Accepted for publication 19 November 2018

Published 22 January 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 147—155

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S179302

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh


Filip Machaj,1 Elzbieta Dembowska,2 Jakub Rosik,1 Bartosz Szostak,1 Małgorzata Mazurek-Mochol,2 Andrzej Pawlik1

1Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; 2Department of Periodontology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland

Abstract: Despite continuous efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), heart failure prevails as the number one cause of death in developed countries. To properly treat CVDs, scientists had to take a closer look at the factors that contribute to their pathogenesis and either modernize current pharmaceuticals or develop brand new treatments. Enhancement of current drugs, such as tolvaptan and omecamtiv mecarbil, sheds new light on already-known therapies. Tolvaptan, a vasopressin antagonist, could be adopted in heart failure therapy as it reduces pre- and afterload by decreasing systolic blood pressure and blood volume. Omecamtiv mecarbil, which is a myosin binding peptide, could aid cardiac contractility. The next generation vasodilators, serelaxin and ularitide, are based on naturally occurring peptides and they reduce peripheral vascular resistance and increase the cardiac index. In combination with their anti-inflammatory properties, they could turn out to be extremely potent drugs for heart failure treatment. Cardiotrophin has exceeded many researchers’ expectations, as evidence suggests that it could cause sarcomere hypertrophy without excessive proliferation of connective tissue. Rapid progress in gene therapy has caused it to finally be considered as one of the viable options for the treatment of CVDs. This novel therapeutic approach could restore stable heart function either by restoring depleted membrane proteins or by balancing the intracellular calcium concentration. Although it has been set back by problems concerning its long-term effects, it is still highly likely to succeed.

Keywords: heart failure, therapy, cardiovascular diseases
 

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