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New targets and developments in lipoproteins control

Authors Norata GD

Received 15 March 2013

Accepted for publication 11 April 2013

Published 27 May 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 77—84


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Giuseppe Danilo Norata1–3

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy; 2Center for the Study of Atherosclerosis, Società Italiana Studio Aterosclerosi, Ospedale Bassini, Cinisello Balsamo, Italy; 3The Blizard Institute, Centre for Diabetes, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University, London, UK

Abstract: Statins provide a very effective approach in reducing plasma cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk. However, the proportion of patients who fail to achieve desirable plasma lipid levels ranges from 16%–53%, worldwide. This percentage reaches up to 80% in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, many patients are unable to tolerate statins, particularly at the highest approved dose level. New treatments that aggressively reduce lipid levels in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia, or those unable to reach their lipid targets, are therefore required. The most promising approaches in this context, such as inhibitors of the synthesis of apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing lipoproteins (apoB silencing or microsomal triglyceride transfer protein [MTP] inhibition) or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) blockers, all decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extensively. Increasing low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol via cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors or apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) inducers and improving their quality with HDL or ApoA-1 mimetics represent also important options. Drugs affecting HDL, however, may not be all alike and require adequate scrutiny of the mechanisms involved. Until we have a better understanding of these issues, further LDL lowering in high-risk patients represents the soundest approach.

Keywords: apolipoproteins, lipids, lipoprotein classes, hypercholesterolemia, synthesis, LDL lowering

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