New developments in magnetic resonance imaging techniques for shoulder instability in athletes
Timothy R McAdams1, Michael Fredericson1, Melissa Vogelsong2, Garry Gold2
1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine
Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be a very useful tool in the evaluation of instability in the athlete’s shoulder. Technical options of MR imaging, such as arthrography, higher power magnets, and shoulder positioning, have enhanced MR evaluation of the shoulder. This update discusses the application of new MR techniques to a variety of shoulder instability patterns, including anterior instability, posterior instability, and atraumatic multidirectional instability. Specific applications of MR imaging in the postoperative patient is discussed. Finally, we describe the future directions of MR imaging in the setting of shoulder instability.
Keywords: athletes, magnetic resonance imaging, shoulder instability
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