Nanoparticulate systems for polynucleotide delivery
Authors Ashwin Basarkar, Jagdish Singh
Published 15 October 2007 Volume 2007:2(3) Pages 353—360
Ashwin Basarkar, Jagdish Singh
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Nursing, and Allied Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA
Abstract: Nanotechnology has tremendously influenced gene therapy research in recent years. Nanometer-size systems have been extensively investigated for delivering genes at both local and systemic levels. These systems offer several advantages in terms of tissue penetrability, cellular uptake, systemic circulation, and cell targeting as compared to larger systems. They can protect the polynucleotide from a variety of degradative and destabilizing factors and enhance delivery efficiency to the cells. A variety of polymeric and non-polymeric nanoparticles have been investigated in an effort to maximize the delivery efficiency while minimizing the toxic effects. This article provides a review on the most commonly used nanoparticulate systems for gene delivery. We have discussed frequently used polymers, such as, polyethyleneimine, poly (lactide-co-glycolide), chitosan, as well as non-polymeric materials such as cationic lipids and metallic nanoparticles. The advantages and limitations of each system have been elaborated.
Keywords: polynucleotides, gene delivery, gene therapy, transfection efficiency, polymers, liposomes