Nanobodies as novel agents for disease diagnosis and therapy
Christina G Siontorou
Department of Industrial Management and Technology, University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece
Abstract: The discovery of naturally occurring, heavy-chain only antibodies in Camelidae, and their further development into small recombinant nanobodies, presents attractive alternatives in drug delivery and imaging. Easily expressed in microorganisms and amenable to engineering, nanobody derivatives are soluble, stable, versatile, and have unique refolding capacities, reduced aggregation tendencies, and high-target binding capabilities. This review outlines the current state of the art in nanobodies, focusing on their structural features and properties, production, technology, and the potential for modulating immune functions and for targeting tumors, toxins, and microbes.
Keywords: heavy chain antibodies, nanobodies, antibody expression, molecular display, formatting
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