Multiple sclerosis presented as clinically isolated syndrome: the need for early diagnosis and treatment
Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou, Sotirios Giannopoulos, Sotiria Tzavidi, Georgios Lagos, Athanassios P Kyritsis
Department of Neurology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Greece
Objective: To aid in the timely diagnosis of patients who present with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).
Patients and methods: We studied 25 patients (18 women, 7 men), originally presented in our clinic with a CIS suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). All patients underwent the full investigation procedure including routine tests, serology, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations, evoked potentials (EPs), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain and cervical spinal cord. Patients were imaged at baseline, and every three months thereafter up to a year.
Results: The CIS was consisted of optic neuritis in 12 cases, incomplete transverse myelitis (ITM) in 7 cases, Lhermitte sign in 2 cases, internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) in 2 cases, mild brainstem syndrome in 1 case, and tonic-clonic seizures in 1 case. Using the baseline and three-month scans 18/25 (72%) patients developed definite MS in one year of follow up while 7 (28%) had no further findings during this observation period. Immunomodulatory treatments were applied to all definite MS patients.
Conclusion: In light of new treatments available, MRIs at 3 month intervals are helpful to obtain the definite diagnosis of MS as early as possible.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis, clinically isolated syndrome, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis
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