Metabolism of ciclesonide in the upper and lower airways: review of available data
Ruediger Nave, Nigel McCracken
Nycomed GmbH, Konstanz, Germany
Abstract: Ciclesonide is a novel corticosteroid (CS) for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. After administration, the parent compound ciclesonide is converted by intracellular airway esterases to its pharmacologically active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC). We investigated the in vitro activation of ciclesonide and further esterification of des-CIC to (mainly) des-CIC oleate in several human target organ test systems. Human precision-cut lung slices, alveolar type II epithelial cells (A549), normal bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), and nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) were incubated with ciclesonide. Enzymes characterization and the determination of the reversibility of fatty acid esterifi cation was investigated in HNEC and NHBE. Ciclesonide was taken up and converted to des-CIC in all cellular test systems. Intracellular concentrations of des-CIC were maintained for up to 24 h. Formation of des-CIC oleate increased over time in HNEC, A549 cells, and lung slices. The formed des-CIC fatty acid conjugates were reconverted to des-CIC. Increasing concentrations of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase inhibitors progressively reduced the formation of metabolites. The results derived from these studies demonstrate the activation of ciclesonide to des-CIC in the upper and lower airways. The reversible formation of des-CIC fatty acid conjugates may prolong the anti-inflammatory activity of des-CIC and may allow for once-daily dosing.
Keywords: ciclesonide, des-CIC, metabolism, human, lung, nasal tissue
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