Membrane interactivity of charged local anesthetic derivative and stereoselectivity in membrane interaction of local anesthetic enantiomers
Hironori Tsuchiya1, Maki Mizogami2
1Department of Dental Basic Education; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Asahi University School of Dentistry, Mizuho, Gifu, Japan
Abstract: With respect to the membrane lipid theory as a molecular mechanism for local anesthetics, two critical subjects, the negligible effects of charged drugs when applied extracellularly and the stereoselective effects of enantiomers, were verified by paying particular attention to membrane components, phospholipids with the anionic property, and cholesterol with several chiral carbons. The membrane interactivities of structurally-different anesthetics were determined by their induced fluidity changes of liposomal membranes. Lidocaine (3.0 μmol/mL) fluidized phosphatidylcholine membranes, but not its quaternary derivative QX-314 (3.0 μmol/mL). Similarly to the mother molecule lidocaine, however, QX-314 fluidized phosphatidylserine-containing nerve cell model membranes and acidic phospholipids-constituting membranes depending on the acidity of membrane lipids. Positively charged local anesthetics are able to act on lipid bilayers by ion-pairing with anionic (acidic) phospholipids. Bupivacaine (0.75 mol/mL) and ropivacaine (0.75 and 1.0 μmol/mL) fluidized nerve cell model membranes with the potency being S(−)-enantiomer < racemate < R(+)-enantiomer (P < 0.01, vs antipode and racemate) and cardiac cell model membranes with the potency being S(−)-ropivacaine < S(−)-bupivacaine < R(+)-bupivacaine (P < 0.01). However, their membrane effects were not different when removing cholesterol from the model membranes. Stereoselectivity is producible by cholesterol which increases the chirality of lipid bilayers and enables to discriminate anesthetic enantiomers. The membrane lipid interaction should be reevaluated as the mode of action of local anesthetics.
Keywords: local anesthetics, membrane lipid interaction, quaternary derivative, enantiomers, membrane interactivity, stereoselectivity
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