Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 10 » Issue 1

Mechanistic study of decreased skin penetration using a combination of sonophoresis with sodium fluorescein-loaded PEGylated liposomes with D-limonene

Authors Rangsimawong W, Opanasopit P, Rojanarata T, Ngawhirunpat T

Received 22 September 2015

Accepted for publication 2 November 2015

Published 15 December 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 7413—7423


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Worranan Rangsimawong, Praneet Opanasopit, Theerasak Rojanarata, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat

Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Abstract: The effect of low frequency sonophoresis (SN, 20 kHz) on the skin transport of sodium fluorescein (NaFI)-loaded liposomes was investigated. An in vitro skin penetration study in open and blocked hair follicles was performed, and confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to visualize the penetration pathways. The results showed that SN significantly increased the flux of NaFI solution, whereas it significantly decreased the flux of NaFI-loaded polyethylene glycol-coated (PEGylated) liposomes with D-limonene (PL-LI). SN did not significantly affect the flux of NaFI-loaded conventional liposomes and PEGylated liposomes. In the blocked follicles, the flux of NaFI-loaded PL-LI both with and without SN decreased, indicating that NaFI-loaded PL-LI penetrated the skin via the transfollicular pathway. A confocal laser scanning microscopy image showed that in the skin without SN, the fluorescence intensity of NaFI-loaded PL-LI was observed in the skin and along the length of hair inside the skin, whereas in the skin with applied SN, the fluorescence intensity was detected only on the top of hair outside the skin. From scanning electron microscopy images, SN dislocated the corneocytes and reduced the deposition of PL-LI around hair follicles. These results revealed that SN may partially plug hair follicle orifices and reduce percutaneous absorption through the follicular pathway.

Keywords: sonophoresis, PEGylated liposomes, hydrophilic compound, follicular pathway

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]