Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine
Jonna Nykky, Jenni E Tuusa, Sanna Kirjavainen, Matti Vuento, Leona Gilbert
Nanoscience Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Abstract: Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.
Keywords: canine parvovirus, apoptosis, necrosis, nanoparticle, virotherapy
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