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Mapping and monitoring for a lymphatic filariasis elimination program: a systematic review

Authors Srividya A, Subramanian S, Jambulingam P, Vijayakumar B, Dinesh Raja J

Received 12 October 2018

Accepted for publication 2 April 2019

Published 27 May 2019 Volume 2019:10 Pages 43—90


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Mario Rodriguez-Perez

Adinarayanan Srividya, Swaminathan Subramanian, Purushothaman Jambulingam, Balakrishnan Vijayakumar, Jeyapal Dinesh Raja

Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Operations Research, ICMR – Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry, India

Abstract: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by the year 2020. The Global Programme for Elimination of LF (GPELF) aims to achieve elimination by interrupting transmission through annual mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole with ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine. The program has successfully eliminated the disease in 11 of the 72 endemic countries, putting in enormous efforts on systematic planning and implementation of the strategy. Mapping areas endemic for LF is a pre-requisite for implementing MDA, monitoring and evaluation are the components of programme implementation. This review was undertaken to assess how the mapping and impact monitoring activities have evolved to become more robust over the years and steered the LF elimination programme towards its goal. The findings showed that the WHO recommended mapping strategy aided 17 countries to delimit, plan and implement MDA in only those areas endemic for LF thereby saving resources. Availability of serological tools for detecting infection in humans (antigen/antibody assays) and molecular xenomonitoring (MX) in vectors greatly facilitated programme monitoring and evaluation in endemic countries. Results of this review are discussed on how these existing mapping and monitoring procedures can be used for re-mapping of unsurveyed and uncertain areas to ensure there is no resurgence during post-MDA surveillance. Further the appropriateness of the tests (Microfilaria (Mf)/antigenemia (Ag)/antibody(Ab) surveys in humans or MX of vectors for infection) used currently for post-MDA surveillance and their role in the development of a monitoring and evaluation strategy for the recently WHO recommended triple drug regimen in MDA for accelerated LF elimination are discussed.

Keywords: lymphatic filariasis, mass drug administration, mapping, monitoring, elimination, xenomonitoring, TAS (transmission-assessment survey)

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