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Management of chronic ocular sarcoidosis: challenges and solutions

Authors Matsou A, Tsaousis KT

Received 20 October 2017

Accepted for publication 20 January 2018

Published 19 March 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 519—532


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Artemis Matsou,1 Konstantinos T Tsaousis2

1Second Department of Ophthalmology, Papageorgiou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Ophthalmology Department, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UK

Background: Sarcoidosis constitutes one of the leading causes of ocular inflammation. Chronic ocular sarcoidosis can affect any segment of the eye and its adnexa, producing a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. If left untreated, permanent visual impairment or even blindness may ensue. Treatment approaches vary from topical therapy to systemic agents that induce immunosuppression to different levels according to disease severity.
Objective: To review the published literature on the management options for chronic ocular sarcoidosis and provide a comprehensive list of available treatment strategies, including the newer biologics.
Summary: Ocular disease remains a challenging aspect of sarcoidosis and may even be the presenting sign of the disease. Prompt and effective therapy may reverse visual damage and prevent permanent loss of vision. Because of the complexity of the disease, a multidisciplinary approach is often required, with a view to addressing both the ocular and other systemic manifestations of sarcoidosis. Recent data suggest that achieving overall optimal systemic control is of paramount importance in controlling eye inflammation as well. Cytotoxic immunosuppressive agents for refractory chronic ocular disease, as well as biologic anti-TNFα therapies, have advanced the management of chronic disease and should be considered corticosteroid-sparing strategies before the onset of significant steroid-induced morbidity.

Keywords: ocular sarcoidosis, uveitis, immunosuppression, biologic agents, anti-TNFα

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