Back to Journals » Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews » Volume 10

Macrophage activation syndrome: early diagnosis is key

Authors Lerkvaleekul B, Vilaiyuk S

Received 27 May 2018

Accepted for publication 25 June 2018

Published 31 August 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 117—128

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OARRR.S151013

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Chuan-Ju Liu


Butsabong Lerkvaleekul, Soamarat Vilaiyuk

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening condition, and it is a subset of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The clinical features include a persistent high-grade fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hemorrhagic manifestations, and a sepsis-like condition. From the clinical features, it is usually difficult to differentiate between a true sepsis, disease flare-ups, or MAS. Although the laboratory abnormalities are similar to those of a disseminated intravascular coagulation, which shows pancytopenia, coagulopathy, hypofibrinogenemia, and an elevated d-dimer test, it can also be a late stage of MAS. Currently, MAS is still underrecognized and usually results in delayed in diagnosis, which leads to high morbidity and mortality. This literature review was conducted in the context of the clinical manifestations and the laboratory abnormalities in MAS, which might provide some clues for an early diagnosis. The best ways for an early recognition and a satisfactory diagnosis were based on the relative changes in the overall parameters from the baseline, together with a thorough and continuous physical examination for these kinds of patients. At present, diagnostic criteria have been proposed for HLH, MAS-associated systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and an MAS-associated systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, selecting the proper diagnostic criteria for use is essential because not all of the criteria are suitable for every autoimmune disease.

Keywords: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, autoimmune diseases, early diagnosis

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]