Low-Dose Methoxyflurane versus Standard of Care Analgesics for Emergency Trauma Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pooled Data
Received 17 November 2020
Accepted for publication 6 January 2021
Published 20 January 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 93—105
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Robert B. Raffa
Andrea Fabbri,1 Alberto M Borobia,2 Agnes Ricard-Hibon,3 Frank Coffey,4 Aurore Caumont-Prim,5 François Montestruc,5 Amedeo Soldi,6 Susana Traseira Lugilde,7 Sara Dickerson8
1Department of Emergency Medicine, Morgagni-Pierantoni Hospital, Forli, Italy; 2Clinical Pharmacology Department, La Paz University Hospital, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; 3Emergency Department SAMU-SMUR 95, CHG Pontoise-Beaumont/Oise, Pontoise, France; 4DREEAM: Department of Research and Education in Emergency Medicine, Acute Medicine and Major Trauma, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK; 5eXYSTAT, Malakoff, France; 6Mundipharma Pharmaceuticals Srl, Milan, Italy; 7Mundipharma Pharmaceuticals S.L., Madrid, Spain; 8Mundibiopharma Limited, Cambridge, UK
Correspondence: Sara Dickerson
Mundibiopharma Limited, Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0AB, UK
Tel +44 1223 397684
Purpose: Undertreatment of trauma-related pain is common in the pre-hospital and hospital settings owing to barriers to the use of traditional standard of care analgesics. Low-dose methoxyflurane is an inhaled non-opioid analgesic with a rapid onset of pain relief that is approved for emergency relief of moderate-to-severe trauma-related pain in adults. This analysis was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of low-dose methoxyflurane with standard of care analgesics in adults with trauma-related pain.
Methods: A meta-analysis was performed on pooled data from randomized controlled trials identified via a systematic review. The primary endpoint was the pain intensity difference between baseline and various time intervals (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes) after initiation of treatment.
Results: The pain intensity difference was statistically superior with low-dose methoxyflurane compared with standard of care analgesics (overall estimated treatment effect=11.88, 95% CI=9.75– 14.00; P< 0.0001). The superiority of low-dose methoxyflurane was demonstrated at 5 minutes after treatment initiation and was maintained across all timepoints. Significantly more patients treated with methoxyflurane achieved response criteria of pain intensity ≤ 30 mm on a visual analog scale, and relative reductions in pain intensity of ≥ 30% and ≥ 50%, compared with patients who received standard of care analgesics. The median time to pain relief was shorter with methoxyflurane than with standard of care analgesics. The findings were consistent in a subgroup of elderly patients (aged ≥ 65 years).
Conclusion: Methoxyflurane can be considered as an alternative to standard of care analgesics in pre-hospital and hospital settings for treatment of adult patients with acute trauma-related pain.
Keywords: acute pain, inhaled analgesic, emergency service, wounds and injury, pain management, analgesia
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]