Live attenuated measles virus vaccine therapy for locally established malignant glioblastoma tumor cells
Ahmed M Al-Shammari,1 Farah E Ismaeel,2 Shahlaa M Salih,2 Nahi Y Yaseen1
1Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Researches, Mustansiriya University, 2Departments of Biotechnology, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, with poor prognosis. A new glioblastoma cell line (ANGM5) was established from a cerebral glioblastoma multiforme in a 72-year-old Iraqi man who underwent surgery for an intracranial tumor. This study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor effect of live attenuated measles virus (MV) Schwarz vaccine strain on glioblastoma multiforme tumor cell lines in vitro. Live attenuated MV Schwarz strain was propagated on Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and human glioblastoma-multiform (ANGM5) cell lines. The infected confluent monolayer appeared to be covered with syncytia with granulation and vacuolation, as well as cell rounding, shrinkage, and large empty space with cell debris as a result of cell lysis and death. Cell lines infected with virus have the ability for hemadsorption to human red blood cells after 72 hours of infection, whereas no hemadsorption of uninfected cells is seen. Detection of MV hemagglutinin protein by monoclonal antibodies in infected cells of all cell lines by immunocytochemistry assay gave positive results (brown color) in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Cell viability was measured after 72 hours of infection by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results showed a significant cytotoxic effect for MV (P≤0.05) on growth of ANGM5 and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines after 72 hours of infection. Induction of apoptosis by MV was assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potentials in tumor cells after 48, 72, and 120 hours of infection. Apoptotic cells were counted, and the mean percentage of dead cells was significantly higher after 48, 72, and 120 hours of infection compared with control cells. This study concludes that live attenuated MV Schwarz vaccine induces the oncolytic effect in Iraqi tumor cell line ANGM5 and in the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line through syncytia in tumor cells, which is one of the causes of cell death. The MV vaccine strain has the ability to insert its hemagglutinin protein into the tumor cell surface, leading to modification of the antigenic surface of tumor cells that may induce an antitumor immune response, MV vaccine strain induced cell killing by direct cytolysis and apoptosis induction. These antitumor features may indicate the use of MV in the treatment of glioblastoma.
Keywords: virotherapy, glioblastoma multiforme
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