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Lignin: Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors Kumar R, Butreddy A, Kommineni N, Reddy PG, Bunekar N, Sarkar C, Dutt S, Mishra VK, Aadil KR, Mishra YK, Oupicky D, Kaushik A

Received 28 January 2021

Accepted for publication 5 March 2021

Published 26 March 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 2419—2441

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S303462

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo


Raj Kumar,1 Arun Butreddy,2 Nagavendra Kommineni,3 Pulikanti Guruprasad Reddy,4 Naveen Bunekar,5 Chandrani Sarkar,6 Sunil Dutt,7 Vivek K Mishra,8 Keshaw Ram Aadil,9 Yogendra Kumar Mishra,10 David Oupicky,1 Ajeet Kaushik11

1Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA; 2Formulation R&D, Biological E. Limited, IKP Knowledge Park, Hyderabad, Telangana State, 500078, India; 3College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, FL, 32307, USA; 4Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER)-Tirupati, Tirupati, 517507, Andhra Pradesh, India; 5Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, 32023, Taiwan; 6Department of Chemistry, Mahila College, Kolhan University, Chaibasa, Jharkhand, 833202, India; 7Department of Chemistry, Govt. Post Graduate College, Una, Himachal Pradesh, India; 8Independent Researcher, Groningen, The Netherlands; 9Center for Basic Sciences, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, 492010, Chhattishgarh, India; 10Mads Clausen Institute, NanoSYD, University of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg, 6400, Denmark; 11NanoBioTech Laboratory, Health Systems Engineering, Department of Natural Sciences, Division of Sciences, Art, & Mathematics, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL, 33805, USA

Correspondence: David Oupicky
Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA
Email [email protected]
Ajeet Kaushik NanoBioTech Laboratory, Health Systems Engineering, Department of Natural Sciences, Division of Sciences, Art, & Mathematics
Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL, 33805, USA
Email [email protected]

Abstract: Lignin is an abundant renewable natural biopolymer. Moreover, a significant development in lignin pretreatment and processing technologies has opened a new window to explore lignin and lignin-based bionanomaterials. In the last decade, lignin has been widely explored in different applications such as drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, food science, water purification, biofuels, environmental, pharmaceuticals, nutraceutical, catalysis, and other interesting low-value-added energy applications. The complex nature and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility of lignin attracted its use in various biomedical applications because of ease of functionalization, availability of diverse functional sites, tunable physicochemical and mechanical properties. In addition to it, its diverse properties such as reactivity towards oxygen radical, metal chelation, renewable nature, biodegradability, favorable interaction with cells, nature to mimic the extracellular environment, and ease of nanoparticles preparation make it a very interesting material for biomedical use. Tremendous progress has been made in drug delivery and tissue engineering in recent years. However, still, it remains challenging to identify an ideal and compatible nanomaterial for biomedical applications. In this review, recent progress of lignin towards biomedical applications especially in drug delivery and in tissue engineering along with challenges, future possibilities have been comprehensively reviewed.

Keywords: lignin, biopolymer, drug delivery, biomedical engineering, nano-biosystem, nanomedicine, tissue engineering

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