Core Evidence ceased publishing in May 2022. All articles that have been published in Core Evidence will continue to be available on the Dove Press site, and will be securely archived with CLOCKSS.
Levels of Evidence
Levels of Evidence
The validity and quality of evidence is evaluated using a hierarchy of evidence and critical appraisal.
1. Strong evidence from at least one systematic review
2. Evidence from randomized controlled trials
3. Evidence from well-designed trials without randomization, single group pre-/postintervention, cohort, time series, or matched case control studies
4. Evidence from well-designed nonexperimental, observational studies from more than one center or research group
5. Opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies, and reports of expert committees
Adapted from Clark W, Mucklow J. Gathering and weighing the evidence. In: Panton R, Chapman S, editors. Medicines Management. London: BMJ Books and Pharmaceutical Press; 1998.
The weight, strength, and consistency of the evidence for a drug’s effectiveness on each outcome are evaluated to give a definitive implication for clinical practice wherever possible.
Randomized controlled trials and economic studies are appraised to assess their strengths, weaknesses, and validity.
Outcomes are selected based on clinical relevance and perceived unmet medical need. Outcome measures are defined as patient-oriented, disease-oriented, or economic.
Conclusions on evidence are summarized as clear, substantial, moderate, limited, or absent depending on a combination of evidence level, its strengths and weaknesses, and its consistency.
Related journals you may also be interested in:
- Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
- Advances in Medical Education and Practice
- Biologics: Targets and Therapy
- Clinical Epidemiology
- Clinical Interventions in Aging
- Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
- ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research
- Drug Design, Development and Therapy
- Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
- ImmunoTargets and Therapy
- Integrated Pharmacy Research and Practice
- International Journal of General Medicine
- International Journal of Nanomedicine
- International Journal of Wine Research
- International Medical Case Reports Journal
- Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
- Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
- Nursing: Research and Reviews
- Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
- Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials
- Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
- Pathology and Laboratory Medicine International
- Patient Preference and Adherence
- Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
- Pragmatic and Observational Research
- Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
- Research and Reviews in Parkinsonism
- Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
- Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
- Vascular Health and Risk Management