Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment
Authors Houston S, Shah N, Decatur C, Lonngi M, Feuer W, Markoe A, Murray T
Received 10 September 2012
Accepted for publication 11 October 2012
Published 22 January 2013 Volume 2013:7 Pages 193—198
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–3
1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USA
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.
Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.
Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40). Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40) at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40) at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30) at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50) at 24 months. Tumor volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001). All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.
Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.
Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab), retinal detachment
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