Intraoperative administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil with nalbuphine reduces postoperative pain after orbital decompression: a single-center, prospective randomized controlled trial
Received 16 September 2018
Accepted for publication 17 January 2019
Published 14 February 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 659—665
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael A Überall
Huijing Ye,* Xiufen Lian,* Rongxin Chen, Yanling Zhu, Hongbin Chen, Jingxia Huang, Ling Xie, Wenfang Ma, Huasheng Yang, Wenjun Guo
State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate postoperative analgesia achieved with intraoperative administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and nalbuphine in patients undergoing orbital decompression.
Methods: Sixty-three patients undergoing orbital decompression under general anesthesia at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center at Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China) were randomly allocated into one of the following three groups (1:1:1): intraoperative flurbiprofen axetil 100 mg (Group 1); intraoperative nalbuphine 0.1 mg/kg (Group 2); or intraoperative flurbiprofen axetil 100 mg combined with nalbuphine 0.1 mg/kg (Group 3). The primary end point was mean postoperative pain intensity during the first 24 hours. The secondary efficacy end points were the intensity of pain and discomfort at 0, 2, 6, 10, and 24 hours after surgery and side effects at 24 hours after surgery.
Results: The demographic characteristics were similar among the three groups. Mean and peak postoperative pain scores during the first 24 hours in Group 3 were lower than those in Group 1 (P=0.007 and P=0.003, respectively) and Group 2 (P=0.001 and P=0.000, respectively). Additionally, the pain scores in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 1 during the first 6 hours after surgery (P=0.003, 0.002, and 0.022 at 0, 2, and 6 hours, respectively) and those in Group 2 during the first 10 hours after surgery (P=0.008, 0.000, 0.001, and 0.019 at 0, 2, 6, and 10 hours, respectively). Discomfort scores were not significantly different among the three groups during the observation period, except at 2 hours after surgery, at which time the scores in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 2 (P=0.033). Postoperative adverse effects and analgesic requirements were similar among the three groups.
Conclusion: Intraoperative administration of a combination of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and nalbuphine is superior to single-dose flurbiprofen axetil or nalbuphine in patients undergoing orbital decompression.
Keywords: postoperative pain, flurbiprofen axetil, nalbuphine, orbital decompression
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