Interactive navigation-guided ophthalmic plastic surgery: assessment of optical versus electromagnetic modes and role of dynamic reference frame location using navigation-enabled human skulls
Received 25 July 2016
Accepted for publication 1 November 2016
Published 25 November 2016 Volume 2016:10 Pages 2383—2390
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Mohammad Javed Ali,1 Milind N Naik,1 Chetan Mallikarjuniah Girish,1 Mohammad Hasnat Ali,2 Swathi Kaliki,2 Tarjani Vivek Dave,1 Gautam Dendukuri1
1Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Service, 2The Operation Eyesight Universal Institute for Eye Cancer, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the anatomical accuracy of navigation technology in localizing defined anatomic landmarks within the orbit with respect to type of technology (optical versus electromagnetic systems) and position of the dynamic reference marker on the skull (vertex, temporal, parietal, and mastoid) using in vitro navigation-enabled human skulls. The role of this model as a possible learning tool for anatomicoradiological correlations was also assessed.
Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on three cadaveric human skulls using the standard image-guidance acquisition protocols. Thirty-five anatomical landmarks were identified for stereotactic navigation using the image-guided StealthStation S7™ in both electromagnetic and optical modes. Three outcome measures studied were accuracy of anatomical localization and its repeatability, comparisons between the electromagnetic and optical modes in assessing radiological accuracy, and the efficacy of dynamic reference frame (DRF) at different locations on the skull.
Results: The geometric localization of all the identified anatomical landmarks could be achieved accurately. The Cohen’s kappa agreements between the surgeons were found to be perfect (kappa =0.941) at all predetermined points. There was no difference in anatomical localization between the optical and electromagnetic modes (P≤0.001). Precision for radiological identification did not differ with various positions of the DRF. Skulls with intact anatomical details and careful CT image acquisitions were found to be stereotactically useful.
Conclusion: Accuracy of anatomic localization within the orbit with navigation technology is equal with optical and electromagnetic system. The location of DRF does not affect the accuracy. Navigation-enabled skull models can be potentially useful as teaching tools for achieving the accurate radiological orientation of orbital and periorbital structures.
Keywords: navigation, image guidance, orbit, anatomy, teaching model, ophthalmic plastic surgery
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