Initial osteoblast adhesion and subsequent differentiation on zirconia surfaces are regulated by integrins and heparin-sensitive molecule
Received 28 May 2018
Accepted for publication 27 August 2018
Published 19 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 7657—7667
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun
Feng Luo,1,2 Guang Hong,3,4 Hiroyuki Matsui,2 Kosei Endo,5 Qianbing Wan,1 Keiichi Sasaki2
1State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China; 2Division of Advanced Prosthetic Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; 3Liaison Center for Innovative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; 4Faculty of Dental Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia; 5Division of Aging and Geriatric Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
Purpose: It is well known that zirconia materials have good biocompatibility; however, little is known regarding the mechanism by which cells attach to these materials. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of cell attachment.
Materials and methods: In this study, we examined the surface characteristics of ceria-stabilized zirconia/alumina nanocomposite (NANOZR), yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) and commercially pure titanium (CpTi), and we evaluated the initial response of osteoblast-like cells to them with different inhibitors.
Results: Under the same polishing treatment, the three materials, NANOZR, Y-TZP and CpTi, show similar surface wettability but different surface roughness. Osteoblasts could adhere to the surface of all three materials, and spindle shapes were clearer in serum-containing media compared to PBS and serum-free culture media, suggesting that serum-contained proteins are helpful for the initial cell adhesion and spreading. Cell adhesion and proliferation were disrupted in the presence of EDTA. RGD-peptide interfered with cell proliferation by affecting cell protrusion and stress fibers. Monoclonal antibody against non-RGD type integrin α2β1 enhanced proliferation in Y-TZP, CpTi and culture dish but not in NANOZR. Cell proliferation on NANOZR was specifically inhibited in the presence of heparin. Furthermore, under heparin administration, spindle shape formation was maintained but actin cytoskeleton was disrupted, resulting in loose cellular spreading.
Conclusion: These results suggest that RGD type integrins and heparin-sensitive protein in coordination regulate cell morphology and proliferation on NANOZR, through the regulation of cell polarity and stress fiber formation, respectively.
Keywords: zirconia, biocompatibility, adhesion, RGD-peptide, integrins
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