Influence of cigarette smoking on hormone and lipid metabolism in women in late reproductive stage
Authors Szkup M, Jurczak A, Karakiewicz B, Kotwas A, Kopeć J, Grochans E
Received 26 April 2017
Accepted for publication 23 November 2017
Published 17 January 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 109—115
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Małgorzata Szkup,1 Anna Jurczak,2 Beata Karakiewicz,3 Artur Kotwas,3 Jacek Kopeć,4 Elżbieta Grochans1
1Department of Nursing, 2Department of Clinical Nursing, 3Department of Public Health, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland; 4School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Background: The aim of the study was to analyze lipid and hormone metabolism, body mass index (BMI), and age parameters in late reproductive stage women in relation to cigarette smoking.
Methods: The study enrolled 345 healthy late reproductive stage women living in Poland; 13.33% were smokers. The first part of the study assessed lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides) and hormone metabolism (estradiol [E2], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], and anti-Müllerian hormone [AMH] levels) in women in the early phase of the follicular menstrual cycle. The second part of study was carried out using the diagnostic survey method, with a standardized questionnaire (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders [PRIME-MD]) and the authors’ own research tools.
Results: The women were aged 42.3±4.5 years (mean ± SD). The BMI (24.8±4.04 kg/m2) did not differ significantly between the groups. The women who smoked cigarettes had a statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower level of HDL as well as higher LDL and triglyceride levels (p<0.05). Differences were also shown in hormone levels: non-smoking participants had statistically significantly higher levels of E2 and FSH (p<0.05). In the group of non-smoking women, age was a predictor exerting a significant positive impact on the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and AMH (p<0.05). BMI contributed to a decline in HDL and triglyceride levels. In the group of smoking women, age significantly positively influenced the level of E2, and negatively influenced AMH. BMI was associated with a significant decrease in the HDL level.
Conclusion: Smoking cigarettes affects the physical health of women in late reproductive stage through negative influences on lipid and hormone metabolism, among other factors. Age is an unmodifiable factor adversely affecting both lipids and hormones. Higher BMI has a negative influence on lipid metabolism in both groups of women in this study.
Keywords: smoking, cholesterol profile, gonadal steroid hormones
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]