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Inflammation-modulating cytokine profile and lipid interaction in HIV-related risk factors for cardiovascular diseases

Authors Gori E, Mduluza T, Nyagura M, Stray-Pedersen B, Gomo ZA

Received 23 July 2016

Accepted for publication 6 September 2016

Published 11 November 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 1659—1666

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S117980

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh

Elizabeth Gori,1,2 Takafira Mduluza,3,4 Mudavanhu Nyagura,2 Babill Stray-Pedersen,5 Zvenyika Alfred Gomo1

1Chemical Pathology Department, College of Health Sciences, 2Preclinical Veterinary Studies Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, 3Biochemistry Department, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; 4School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

Abstract: HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with changes in plasma levels of lipoproteins, thus posing the risk of cardiovascular complications in infected individuals. The alteration in plasma lipoprotein levels results from dysregulation of inflammation-modulating cytokines that control lipid metabolism. Little is understood regarding the relationship between the cytokines and serum lipid levels, which have been reported to be altered in adults receiving ART. The objective of this study was to describe the profiles of inflammation-modulating cytokines and their relationship to lipids as cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in HIV infection. This observational cross-sectional study measured plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α, IL-4, total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in HIV-infected and uninfected adults. A total of 219 HIV-infected participants were enrolled from an HIV treatment center; of them, 187 were receiving ART and 32 were ART naïve, while 65 were HIV-uninfected blood donors. HIV-infected individuals had higher levels of IL-10 (HIV-infected ART-naïve [P=0.0024] and ART-receiving [P=0.033]) than their uninfected counterparts. ART-naïve subjects had significantly higher plasma levels of IL-10 than ART-receiving subjects (P=0.0014). No significant difference was observed in plasma levels of IL-4 and TNF-α across the three groups. Regarding plasma lipoproteins, HDL-c levels were reduced in HIV ART-naïve (P=0.002) and ART-receiving (P=0.015) subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Similarly, TC levels were lower in the HIV-infected than in the HIV-uninfected group regardless of whether the patients were undergoing ART or not (P<0.001). IL-10 levels correlated with TC levels in the HIV-uninfected group but not in the HIV-infected groups. Levels of HDL-c were reduced, while IL-10 plasma concentrations were elevated in HIV-infected individuals. A correlation observed in HIV-uninfected individuals between anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and TC was lost in HIV-infected individuals. Clinical significance of these differences needs to be ascertained with respect to HIV-related CVD risk.

Keywords: HIV, inflammation, cytokines, antiretroviral therapy, cardiovascular disease risk

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