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Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanoparticulate crystalline hydroxyapatite functionalized with KRSR

Authors Michael Nelson, Ganesan Balasundaram, Thomas J Webster

Published 15 September 2006 Volume 2006:1(3) Pages 339—349

Michael Nelson1*, Ganesan Balasundaram2,4,*, Thomas J Webster2,3,4

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 2Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering and 3School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 4Present Address: Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; *These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: The present in vitro study created nanometer crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) and amorphous calcium phosphate for novel orthopedic applications. Specifically, nano-crystalline HA and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical process followed by hydrothermal treatment for 2 hours at 200°C and 70°C, respectively. Resulting particles were then pressed into compacts. For the preparation of control conventional HA particles (or those currently used in orthopedics with micron diameters), the aforementioned calcium phosphate particles were pressed into compacts and sintered at 1100°C for 2 hours. All calcium phosphate-based particles were fully characterized. Results showed that although there was an initial weight gain for all the compacts studied in this experiment, higher eventual degradation rates up to 3 weeks were observed for nano-amorphous calcium phosphate compared with nano-crystalline HA which was higher than conventional HA. Peptide functionalization (with the cell adhesive peptide lysine-arginine-serine-arginine [KRSR] and the non-cell-adhesive peptide lysine-serine-arginine-arginine [KSRR]) was accomplished by means of a three-step reaction procedure: silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), cross-linking with N-succinimidyl-3-maleimido propionate (SMP), and finally peptide immobilization. The peptide functionalization was fully characterized. Results demonstrated increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion on non-functionalized and functionalized nano-crystalline HA compacts compared with nano amorphous calcium phosphate compacts; both increased osteoblast adhesion compared with conventional HA. To further exemplify the novel properties of nano crystalline HA, results also showed similar osteoblast adhesion between non-functionalized nano crystalline HA and KRSR functionalized conventional HA. Thus, results provided evidence that nanocrystalline HA should be further studied for orthopedic applications.

Keywords: nanomaterials, hydroxyapatite; osteoblast adhesion; KRSR grafting