Incidence, severity and factors related to drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy with glaucoma medications
Takeo Fukuchi, Kimiko Wakai, Kieko Suda, Tomoko Nakatsue, Hideko Sawada, Hiroaki Hara, Jun Ueda, Takayuki Tanaka, Akiko Yamada, Haruki Abe
Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, severity, and factors related to drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy in eyes using antiglaucoma eye drops.
Patients and methods: In a cross-sectional study, 749 eyes from 427 patients who had used one or more antiglaucoma eye drops were examined at Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital or related facilities. The incidence and severity of superficial punctate keratitis (SPK), patient gender and age, type of glaucoma, and type of eye drops were recorded. SPK was graded according to the AD (A, area; D, density) classification. The severity score (SS) was calculated from A × D.
Results: SPK was observed in 382 (51.0%) of 749 eyes that had received any type of antiglaucoma eye drops. While 254 eyes (33.9%) were classified as A1D1 (SS 1), 34 eyes (4.6%) had severe SPK with SS 4 or more. The number of eye drops and the total dosing frequency per day were significantly greater in SPK-positive eyes than in eyes without SPK. The number of eye drops was proportional to the frequency and severity of SPK. Among eyes that were treated with three or more eye drops, SPK was more severe and more frequent in older patients (≥71 years). In addition, a considerable difference was detected for each type of glaucoma.
Conclusion: Drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy is often observed in eyes that have received recent antiglaucoma eye drops. The number of eye drops, the total dose frequency per day, patient age, and type of glaucoma may affect this condition. We have to consider not only the effects on intraocular pressure but also the incidence and severity of drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy as a frequent side effect of glaucoma medications.
Keywords: glaucoma, medications, eye drops, keratoepitheliopathy, AD classification
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