Incidence of Non-Traumatic Subconjunctival Hemorrhage in an Indian Rural Population
Received 19 August 2020
Accepted for publication 7 December 2020
Published 15 January 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 183—188
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Rajesh Subhash Joshi,1 Rahul Ramchandra Bandgar2
1Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Nagpur 440012, Maharashtra, India; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shri Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College, Yavatmal 4510001, Maharashtra, India
Correspondence: Rajesh Subhash Joshi
Government Medical College, Nagpur 440012, India
Purpose: To determine the incidence of non-traumatic subconjunctival hemorrhage (NTSH) in Indian rural population and analyze the associated risk factors.
Methods: The study included patients diagnosed having subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH) who attended the out-patient department (OPD) of ophthalmology. Demographic characteristics of subjects included age, gender, medical and ocular history, and location of hemorrhage.
Results: The incidence rate of NTSH in this study was 3.07 per 1000 patients per year attending OPD. The men to women ratio for NTSH was 1.26 (95% CI). The commonest site of presentation was nasal side (n=36, 51.4%). Right eye (n= 37, 54.3%) was affected more than the left eye (n=28, 40%). The analysis showed 24 patients (34.3%) did not have any etiological factor attributable to SCH. Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) was associated in 15 patients (21.4%). An antiplatelet agent was associated with SCH in 7 patients (10%). Other factors associated with SCH were hypertension, leukemia, and anemia (n=6, 8.6%).
Conclusion: This study indicates that NTSH occurs in 3 out of 1000 individuals per year in the rural population presenting to the OPD. Nasal conjunctiva was commonly involved. CCH was associated with 15 patients. Use of antiplatelet agents, hypertension and blood disorders are associated with the risk of NTSH. Patients presenting for the first time with NTSH should be screened for systemic etiological factors.
Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, red eye, antiplatelet agents, conjunctivochalasis, hypertension
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]