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In situ preparation of water-soluble ginsenoside Rh2-entrapped bovine serum albumin nanoparticles: in vitro cytocompatibility studies

Authors Singh P, Kim YJ, Singh H, Ahn S, Castro-Aceituno V, Yang DC

Received 19 October 2016

Accepted for publication 14 January 2017

Published 29 May 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 4073—4084


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Priyanka Singh,1,2 Yeon Ju Kim,1 Hina Singh,1 Sungeun Ahn,1 Verónica Castro-Aceituno,1 Deok Chun Yang1,2

1Department of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology, Ginseng Bank, 2Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea

Abstract: The present study investigates a simple and convenient one-step procedure for the preparation of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Rh2 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. In this work, ginsenoside Rh2 was entrapped within the BSA protein to form BSA-Rh2 NPs to enhance the aqueous solubility, stability, and therapeutic efficacy of Rh2. The physiochemical characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the prepared BSA-Rh2 NPs were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in aqueous systems. In addition, the stability of NPs in terms of different time intervals, pHs, and temperatures (20°C–700°C) was analyzed. The results obtained with different pHs showed that the synthesized BSA-Rh2 NPs were stable in the physiological buffer (pH 7.4) for up to 8 days, but degraded under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) representing the pH inside tumor cells. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the water solubility of BSA-Rh2 NPs and standard Rh2 showed that the BSA nanocarrier enhanced the water solubility of Rh2. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity assays including cell viability assays and morphological analyses revealed that Rh2-entrapped BSA NPs, unlike the free Rh2, demonstrated better in vitro cell viability in HaCaT skin cell lines and that BSA enhanced the anticancer effect of Rh2 in A549 lung cell and HT29 colon cancer cell lines. Additionally, anti-inflammatory assay of BSA-Rh2 NPs and standard Rh2 performed using RAW264.7 cells revealed decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by BSA-Rh2 NPs. Collectively, the present study suggests that BSA can significantly enhance the therapeutic behavior of Rh2 by improving its solubility and stability in aqueous systems, and hence, BSA-Rh2 NPs may potentially be used as a ginsenoside delivery vehicle in cancer and inflammatory cell lines.

Keywords: bovine serum albumin, ginsenoside Rh2, solubility, stability, cancer, inflammation

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