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In situ misemgel as a multifunctional dual-absorption platform for nasal delivery of raloxifene hydrochloride: formulation, characterization, and in vivo performance

Authors Ahmed OAA, Badr-Eldin SM

Received 26 July 2018

Accepted for publication 11 September 2018

Published 11 October 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 6325—6335

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S181587

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Osama AA Ahmed,1,2 Shaimaa M Badr-Eldin1,3

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Background:
Raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, in addition to reducing the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. RLX has the disadvantages of low aqueous solubility, extensive presystemic intestinal glucuronidation, and first-pass metabolism, resulting in a limited bioavailability of only 2%. The aim of this work was to enhance the bioavailability of RLX via the formulation of an in situ nasal matrix (misemgel) comprising micelles made of vitamin E and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate and nanosized self-emulsifying systems (NSEMS).
Materials and methods: Optimization of the RLX-loaded NSEMS was performed using a mixture design. The formulations were characterized by particle size and then incorporated into an in situ nasal gel. Transmission electron microscopy, bovine nasal mucosa ex vivo permeation, and visualization using a fluorescence laser microscope were carried out on the RLX in situ misemgel comparing with raw RLX in situ gel. In addition, the in vivo performance was studied in rats.
Results: The results revealed improved permeation parameters for RLX misemgel compared with control gel, with an enhancement factor of 2.4. In vivo studies revealed a 4.79- and 13.42-fold increased bioavailability for RLX in situ misemgel compared with control RLX in situ gel and commercially available tablets, respectively. The obtained results highlighted the efficacy of combining two different formulations to enhance drug delivery and the benefits of utilizing different possible paths for drug absorption.
Conclusion: The developed in situ misemgel matrix could be considered as a promising multifunctional platform for nasal delivery which works based on a dual-absorption mechanism.

Keywords: micelles, nanosized self-emulsifying systems, mixture design, fluorescence laser microscope, permeation, pharmacokinetics

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