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Identification of risk factors for hepatitis B and C in Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors Shafiq M, Nadeem M, Sattar Z, Mohammad Khan S, Faheem SM, Ahsan I, Naheed R, Mehmood Khattak T, Akbar S, Talha Khan M, Ilyas Khan M, Zubair Khan M

Received 9 May 2014

Accepted for publication 27 June 2014

Published 17 August 2015 Volume 2015:7 Pages 223—231

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S67429

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3


Muhammad Shafiq,1 Muhammad Nadeem,2 Zeeshan Sattar,3 Sohaib Mohammad Khan,2 Sheikh Muhammad Faheem,4 Irfan Ahsan,5 Rabia Naheed,6 Tahir Mehmood Khattak,2 Shahzad Akbar,7 Muhammad Talha Khan,3 Muhammad Ilyas Khan,1 Muhammad Zubair Khan8

1Department of Internal Medicine, Khyber Teaching Hospital, University Town, Peshawar, 2Department of General Surgery, Nishtar Medical College and Hospital, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Khyber Medical College, University Campus, Peshawar, 4Department of Neurology, King Edward Medical University, Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 6Department of Internal Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Lady Reading Hospital, Andar Shehr, Peshawar, 8Department of Internal Medicine, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Hayat Abad, Pakistan

Background: Hepatitis B and C need immediate worldwide attention as the infection rates are too high. More than 240 million people have chronic (long-term) liver infections. Every year, about 600,000 people die globally due to the acute or chronic consequences of hepatitis B and more than 350,000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases.
Methods: Our study was designed as a case-control, descriptive study. It was conducted through formal interviews by using structured questionnaires. A total of 100 cases were included, with four controls for each case.
Results: This study confirms household contact, history of dental work, history of surgery, sexual contact, and history of transfusion (blood and its components) as the main risk factors which are responsible for the increased prevalence of hepatitis.
Conclusion: The important risk factors, responsible for the high prevalence of hepatitis B and C in our society are household contact, history of dental work, history of surgery, sexual contact, and history of transfusion (blood and its components). The odds ratio of probability for these risk factors are: 4.2 for household contact history, 4.1 for history of dental work, 3.9 for sexual contact, 2.7 for history of surgery, and 2.1 for history of transfusion. Associations of other predictor variables (diabetes status, education level, profession, contact sports, intravenous drug abuse, residence, immunosuppression, and skin tattoos) were not statistically significant.

Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, IV drug abuse, transfusion, dental work, surgery, sexual contact

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