Human rotavirus genotypes circulating in Brazil before and after a nationwide rotavirus vaccination program established in 2006
Thabata AR Caruzo
Genetics, Evolution and Bioagents Department, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract: Accounting for an estimated 600,000 deaths worldwide each year, rotaviruses are recognized as the most important etiologic agents causing severe acute gastroenteritis among children under the age of five years. In Brazil, until rotavirus vaccination was established in the public health system in 2006, acute gastroenteritis striking children under five years and caused by these viruses was clearly associated with 3.5 million episodes of diarrhea, 650,000 visits to outpatient health care facilities, 92,000 hospitalizations, and 850 deaths each year. After the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Brazil in March 2006, studies all over the country have been comparing rotavirus genotypes circulating in the recent pre- and postvaccination era. Most of these studies have reported a high prevalence of the G2P genotype and also a decrease in rotavirus detection all over Brazil after the introduction of the vaccine. So far, these are preliminary studies, as a longer period of time is necessary to establish if this high prevalence of G2P is due to selective pressure by the vaccine on the circulating viruses or to a normal genotype fluctuation, and if it will have any impact on vaccine efficacy in the future. This review describes results from the most recent studies addressing this issue and on rotavirus genotypic variability in Brazil.
Keywords: human rotavirus, vaccine, genotypes, prevalence, Brazil
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