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Human β-defensin 3-combined gold nanoparticles for enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells in inflammatory microenvironments

Authors Zhou J, Zhang Y, Li L, Fu H, Yang W, Yan F

Received 6 September 2017

Accepted for publication 7 December 2017

Published 26 January 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 555—567

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S150897

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun


Jing Zhou,1 Yangheng Zhang,1 Lingjun Li,1 Huangmei Fu,2 Wenrong Yang,2 Fuhua Yan1

1Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Life and Environmental Science, Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia

Objective: It is a great challenge to absorb and conduct biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface. Peptides are emerging as versatile materials whose function can be programmed to perform specific tasks. Peptides combined nanoparticles might be utilized as a new approach of treatment. Human β-defensin 3 (hBD3), possesses both antimicrobial and proregeneration properties. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown promising applications in the field of tissue engineering. However, the coordinating effects of AuNPs and hBD3 on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) remain unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated whether AuNPs and hBD3 would be able to coordinate and enhance the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs in inflammatory microenvironments, and the underlying mechanisms was explored.
Methods: hPDLCs were stimulated with E. coli-LPS, hBD3 and AuNPs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red S staining were used to observe the effects of hBD3 and AuNPs on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway related gene and protein expression.
Results: In the inflammatory microenvironments stimulated by E. coli-LPS, we found that AuNPs and hBD3 increased the proliferation of hPDLCs slightly. In addition, hBD3-combined AuNPs could significantly enhance ALP activities and mineral deposition in vitro. Meanwhile, we observed that the osteogenic differentiation-related gene and protein expressions of ALP, collagenase-I (COL-1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2) were remarkably upregulated in the presence of hBD3 and AuNPs. Moreover, hBD3-combined AuNPs strongly activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and upregulated the gene and protein expression of β-catenin and cyclin D1. Furthermore, hBD3-combined AuNPs induced osteogenesis, which could be reversed by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor (ICG-001).
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that hBD3 combined AuNPs could significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs in inflammatory microenvironments via activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Keywords: hBD3, gold nanoparticles, periodontal ligament cells, osteogenesis, inflammatory microenvironments, Wnt/β-catenin signaling
 

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