HPV infection, cervical abnormalities, and cancer in HIV-infected women in Mumbai, India: 12-month follow-up
Authors Isaakidis P, Pimple S, Varghese B, Khan S, Mansoor H, Ladomirska J, Sharma N, Da Silva E, Metcalf C, Caluwaerts S, Alders P, Ntzani EE, Reid T
Received 6 May 2013
Accepted for publication 13 June 2013
Published 13 August 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 487—494
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Petros Isaakidis,1,2 Sharmila Pimple,3 Bhanumati Varghese,1 Samsuddin Khan,1 Homa Mansoor,1 Joanna Ladomirska,1 Neelakumari Sharma,1 Esdras Da Silva,1 Carol Metcalf,4 Severine Caluwaerts,4 Petra Alders,4 Evangelia E Ntzani,2 Tony Reid4
1Médecins Sans Frontières, Mumbai, India; 2Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece; 3Preventive Oncology Department, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India; 4Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium
Background: HIV-infected women are at a higher risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer than women in the general population, partly due to a high prevalence of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The aim of the study was to assess the burden of HPV infection, cervical abnormalities, and cervical cancer among a cohort of HIV-infected women as part of a routine screening in an urban overpopulated slum setting in Mumbai, India.
Methods: From May 2010 to October 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières and Tata Memorial Hospital Mumbai offered routine annual Pap smears and HPV DNA testing of women attending an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic and a 12-month follow-up. Women with abnormal test results were offered cervical biopsy and treatment, including treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Results: Ninety-five women were screened. Median age was 38 years (IQR: 33–41); median nadir CD4-count 143 cells/µL (IQR: 79–270); and median time on ART 23 months (IQR:10–41). HPV DNA was detected in 30/94 women (32%), and 18/94 (19%) showed either low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL/HSIL) on Pap smear. Overall, >50% had cervical inflammatory reactions including STIs. Of the 43 women with a cervical biopsy, eight (8.4%) had CIN-1, five (5.3%) CIN-2, and two (2.1%) carcinoma in situ. All but one had HPV DNA detected (risk ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval: 3.3–34). By October 2011, 56 women had completed the 12-month follow-up and had been rescreened. No new cases of HPV infection/LSIL/HSIL were detected.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of HPV infection, STIs, and cervical lesions among women attending an ART clinic demonstrates a need for routine screening. Simple, one-stop screening strategies are needed. The optimal screening interval, especially when resources are limited, needs to be determined.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, HPV, women's health, cervical cancer, operational research, India
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