Hormonal and echocardiographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle-cell anemia in Bahrain
Received 11 October 2016
Accepted for publication 10 November 2016
Published 13 December 2016 Volume 2016:7 Pages 283—289
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin Bluth
Taysir S Garadah,1,2 Ahmed A Jaradat,3 Mohammed E Alalawi,1 Adla B Hassan2
1Cardiac Unit, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain
Background: Adrenal, thyroid, and parathyroid gland hormonal changes are recognized in children with homozygous (HbSS) sickle-cell anemia (SCA), but are not clear in adult patients with SCA.
Aim: To assess the metabolic and endocrine abnormalities in adult patients with SCA and evaluate left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions compared with patients with no SCA and further study the relationship between serum levels of cortisol, free thyroxine (T4), and testosterone with serum ferritin.
Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 82 patients with adult HbSS SCA compared with a sex- and age-matched control group. The serum levels of cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and free T4 were compared. Blood levels of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), vitamin D3, and ferritin were also compared. Pulsed Doppler echo was performed to evaluate the LV mass, wall thickness, and cavity dimensions with diastolic filling velocities of early (E) and atria (A) waves. Biometric data were analyzed as mean ± standard deviation between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed between serum levels of ferritin as independent variable and testosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones.
Results: A total of 82 adult patients with HbSS SCA were enrolled who had a mean age of 21±5.7 years, with 51 males (62%). Patients with SCA compared with the control group had significantly lower hemoglobin, body mass index, cortisol, vitamin D3, testosterone, and T4. Furthermore, there were significantly high levels of reticulocyte count, PTH, TSH, ferritin, LDH, ALP, and uric acid. The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency was 7% and 4.8%, respectively, with hypogonadism 9.8% and vitamin D3 deficiency 61%. There were inverse relationships between ferritin as independent variable and serum levels of testosterone, T4, and cortisol, with regression coefficients of –0.49 (P<0.001), –0.33 (P<0.001), and –0.11 (P<0.92), respectively.
Conclusion: Patients with adult SCA had a high prevalence of in vivo hypoadrenialism (4.8%), hypogonadism (9.8%), and hypothyroidism (7%). There were significant inverse relationships between serum ferritin as independent variable and cortisol, testosterone, and T4. Pulsed Doppler echocardiography showed increased LV mass, with a restrictive LV diastolic pattern suggestive of diastolic dysfunction.
Keywords: endocrine disorders, metabolic disorders, sickle-cell anemia, echocardiogram
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